Half-Scottish, half-Native American, two men at the turn of the 19th century shaped the future of U.S.-Indian relations.”>
Once, American historians offered a simpler story with clearer lines. We the people were white Europeans, fighting Indians and enslaving blacks, then, eventually, atoning for it. Even with todays more multidimensional and multicultural perspective, few realize how much Colonial Americans mixed socially and demographically. Important Creek-Scotsmen like Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh remain obscure.
Theodore Roosevelt deemed McGillivray perhaps the most gifted man who was ever born on the soil of Alabama. McIntosh, McGillivrays relative and doppelganger, was a wealthy Indian chief and slaveowner assassinated by his own people for caving to the Americans. This April 6, National Tartan Day, Americans should salute Scots by remembering these two Native American Machiavellian diplomats in kilts and headdress.
The son of a once-penniless Scottish immigrant who prospered in America and a Creek princess with French blood, Alexander McGillivray was born in 1750 near todays Montgomery, Alabama. He grew up in his tribe as a member of the privileged Wind clan, until sent to Charleston for a European education when he was 14, featuring Greek and Latin instruction.
When he returned, his mastery of white ways and his aristocratic blood made him a natural leader, dubbed Hippo-ilk-mico, the Good Child King. Living on one of his fathers plantations, he led the Creek confederacy of 10,000 warriors including the Seminole and Chickamauga tribes. During the Revolutionary War, the McGillivrays and Creeks fought with the Britishan expensive miscalculation. The patriots seized the McGillivray estates.
After the war, McGillivray rebuilt his wealth by allying with the Spanish and another Scot, William Panton. Panton, Leslie & company would become the Southeasts largest traderexploiting the access granted in the Treaty of Pensacola McGillivray negotiated in 1784.
McGillivray hated the Americans for seizing what he claimed was 39,999 pounds sterling worth of propertyand encroaching on the Creek kingdom. He raided strategically and negotiated belligerently, for the desirable purpose, he wrote with typical elegance in 1785, of adjusting and settling matters, on an equitable footing, between the United States and the Indian nations.
McGillivray dealt with Americas weak central government because he feared the rabid Georgia state government. Describing the armed Georgians hostility in 1788, he wrote, If I fall by the hand of such, I shall fall the victim of the noblest of causes, that of maintaining the just rights of my country. Growing up, my U.S. history textbooks never described such Creek nationalism and Western sophistication.
McGillivrays shenanigans were so grating that President George Washington considered declaring war on the Creeks. When General Henry Knox estimated Indian wars would cost the bankrupt new nation $15 million, Washington shifted, hosting the chief and his entourage in the nations capitalNew York. The resulting treaty gave the tribal chieftains payments and handsome medals, while McGillivray scored annual payments of $1,200 and an appointment as brigadier-general. Ah, for the good ol days of shameless graft.
The Creeks ceded some land to their east but gained present-day Alabama, and parts of Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida. Shortly after signing the Treaty of New York in 1790, McGivillray negotiated a $2,000 annual salary from the Spanish, securing the title of Superintendent-general.